(PhysOrg.com) — As computer chips become more powerful, they also become hotter. Nearly all the power that flows into a chip comes out of it as waste heat, and that heat hurts the performance of the chip. Methods for cooling transistors have always been an important part of the semiconductor industry, but recently researchers have been coming up with more clever strategies for keeping computer chips cool. One such strategy is the use of a chip-scale thermoelectric cooler, which has been demonstrated for the first time by a collaboration of researchers from Intel, Arizona State University in Tempe, RTI International, and Nextreme Thermal Solutions.In a recent study published in Nature Nanotechnology, the researchers presented the thermoelectric “chiller” embedded in a chip package that pumps heat out of the chip when current flows through it. The chiller could lower the temperature of a small hot spot on a large chip by nearly 15°C – exceeding the significant 10°C goal that was described in an analysis by researchers at the University of Maryland five years ago.One key to the device’s performance was that the researchers focused on cooling only the hottest spots on a chip, which has previously been shown to be a more energy-efficient strategy than trying to cool the entire chip. Another key is that the researchers fabricated the device out of nanoscale layers of material, which has previously been shown to increase efficiency.The thermoelectric cooler consists of a superlattice structure made of bismuth, tellurium, antimony, and selenium. The structure pumps heat from the back side of the chip to a conventional heat spreader on the front side, which uses convection to transfer the heat and cool the chip.In experiments, the researchers created a hot spot on the chip (with a heat flux of about 1300 W/cm2, which is much higher than usually found on a microprocessor). Even before powering the thermoelectric superlattice structure, the chiller could decrease the temperature of the hot spot by about 6°C. After powering the thermoelectric cooler, the temperature of the hot spot cooled by nearly 15°C.The researchers explained that the thermoelectric technique could provide cooling solutions for computers in future data centers, in which cooling hot spots on processors will be critical for good performance. Transistors run faster when they’re cooler, and also last longer because extreme temperature changes cause mechanical stress on computer chips that can destroy them. Thermoelectric strategies might also help cool the chips in portable devices, such as multitasking smart phones, which run data-intensive processing.As co-author Ravi Prasher of Intel explained, packaging a nanoscale device within a macroscale system is a significant achievement. However, the team still needs to do more work before commercializing the device.More information: Chowdhury, Ihtesham, et al. “On-chip cooling by superlattice-based thin-film thermoelectrics.” Nature Nanotechnology. Published online: 25 January 2009 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2008.417.via: IEEE Spectrum© 2009 PhysOrg.com Explore further On-Chip Silicon ‘Microcoolers’ for Microprocessor Hot Spots Citation: Scientists Develop First Chip-Scale Thermoelectric Cooler (2009, February 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-02-scientists-chip-scale-thermoelectric-cooler.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Anabas scandens, = Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). Credit: public domain Anabas testudineus Over the past forty years, the fish has slowly made its way to Indonesia, and then Papua New Guinea—more recently some have been spotted on two Australian islands, the Torres Strait islands of Boigu and Saibai, just 160K from the Australian mainland. Marine biologists are worried that the fish will take over habitat now being occupied by other species because it has so many survival capabilities. The fish can crawl on land using its sharp, spiny, gill covers, breathe air with its mammal-like lungs, and has been seen able to survive up to six days without any water at all. It also has been seen to puff itself up somehow after being swallowed by other fish or birds, sticking in the throat and causing either starvation or suffocation. As if all that were not enough, researchers have also found instances of the freshwater fish being able to live in near sea level saltwater, and, it has been discovered that the fish can hibernate in mud for up to six months. All these attributes make it relatively easy for the fish to survive in practically any environment, and that is what it has been doing as it has slowly moved south, overwhelming native fish populations. Marine biologist are worried that if the fish makes it to the mainland, it will make its way into watering holes and other waterways, simply by crawling to them and causing what some have described as a major disaster for native fish, turtles and birds.Despite its superfish characteristics, the fish cannot swim to Australia—to get there it will likely have to hitch a ride on the bottom of a boat or be tossed overboard by fishermen. For that reason, environmentalists are giving fishermen and boaters information about the fish and are being encouraged to help prevent its spread to Australian shores. Meanwhile, biologists are capturing specimens and studying them in a lab to learn more about both their strengths and weaknesses, hoping to find a way to either prevent them from coming to the mainland, or to eradicate them if they succeed. Australian marine biologists are worried that a species of perch native to Southeast Asia (the climbing perch, aka Anabas testudineus), will soon make its way onto the Australian mainland in the near future, putting native species of other fish and some birds at risk. Explore further © 2015 Phys.org Fish found in suspected tsunami debris boat quarantined Citation: Crawling, breathing fish on a course to invade Australia (2015, June 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-06-fish-invade-australia.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Science Advances © 2017 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from several institutions in South Korea has developed a means for creating organized yet random mazes on tiny particles. In their paper published on the open access site Science Advances, the group describes their technique and possible uses for such tiny mazes. Citation: Making miniature mazes by wrinkling surface of tiny particles (2017, July 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-miniature-mazes-wrinkling-surface-tiny.html How to escape a maze – according to maths Demonstration of various physical mazes. Credit: Bae et al., Sci. Adv. 2017;3: e1700071 Play Generation of the guided wrinkles. Credit: Bae et al., Sci. Adv. 2017;3: e1700071 As the researchers note, prior efforts have been made by different teams to create tiny mazes by taking advantage of wrinkling, but until now, there was no order to the resulting mazes, which meant there was little practical use for them. In this new effort, the researchers have found a self-organized way to construct maze-like microstructures that are periodic and ordered but which also have a degree of randomness to them.To make their mazes, the team used ultraviolet light to etch patterns on a given microparticle—photomasks (tiny plates with holes or slits to allow light to pass through in a pattern) were used to create specific etched patterns. The design on the particle was then coated with silica. As the silica dried, the surface wrinkled naturally, creating ridges that became parts of the maze—bends, for example, or endings, straight lines or splits. The use of the photomasks to create designs on the particles prior to shining the ultraviolet light allowed for controlling the way the parts of the maze arose as the silica wrinkled. The technique also allowed for customizing the overall look of the maze, resulting in perpendicular-shaped, hexagonal or even ring-shaped mazes. The team reports that they were even able to make one maze that had the capital letter N at its center.The team notes that the mazes could be made without blueprints and that they could be given unique features by adjusting the photomasks, making them ideal candidates to serve as security features. The tiny mazes could serve as what the team calls “physical unclonable functions” offering a physical way to undergird an encryption system with an ID-creating technique baked right into a system, making it virtually impossible for a hacker to gain access. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen More information: Hyung Jong Bae et al. Self-organization of maze-like structures via guided wrinkling, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700071AbstractSophisticated three-dimensional (3D) structures found in nature are self-organized by bottom-up natural processes. To artificially construct these complex systems, various bottom-up fabrication methods, designed to transform 2D structures into 3D structures, have been developed as alternatives to conventional top-down lithography processes. We present a different self-organization approach, where we construct microstructures with periodic and ordered, but with random architecture, like mazes. For this purpose, we transformed planar surfaces using wrinkling to directly use randomly generated ridges as maze walls. Highly regular maze structures, consisting of several tessellations with customized designs, were fabricated by precisely controlling wrinkling with the ridge-guiding structure, analogous to the creases in origami. The method presented here could have widespread applications in various material systems with multiple length scales. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
He said the Home Ministry is working on the new programme that will merge PIO and Overseas Citizenship of India schemes and that instructions have been issued to Embassies and Consulates that apart from special circumstances, US nationals should get visas for 10 years.‘Am very glad to share that GoI (government of India) has moved swiftly on the announcements I had made on consular and visa issues during my USA visit,’ Modi tweeted.He noted that a gazette notification was issued on 30 September, two days after his announcement, which said that all PIO cards are valid for lifetime of cardholders. Earlier it was 15 years.‘The gazette notification on 30 September fulfils the announcement that all PIO cardholders will now enjoy a life- long visa to India,’ the Prime Minister said.The notification also says that PIO card holders would not have to report to police stations, even if their visit exceeds 180 days, he said in another tweet.‘Instructions have been issued to embassies and consulates that apart from special circumstances, USA nationals should get visas for 10 years,’ Modi added. Systems are in place to introduce visa on arrival for US tourists in October itself, a PMO statement said.‘Am sure these efforts will further strengthen our bond with the diaspora and give an impetus to our development journey,’ Modi said in one more tweet. He had made the announcements during an address in New York on 28 September.
Kolkata: South Eastern Railway (SER) has achieved yet another milestone in the field of energy conservation as well as revenue savings, with all its 365 stations being fitted with 100 percent LED lights.”This line of energy conservation measures adopted in SER and the 100 percent LED provision in all SER stations, has been completed as per the Budget commitment of Railway minister. This massive task has been completed by March 30 this year,” a senior SER official said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe official added that fitting of the LED lights has reduced the connected load of the stations by 542 KW. “As a result, there would be reduction in electricity consumption of 2.17 million units on a yearly basis. This reduction would lead to monetary savings of Rs.1.52 crore per annum,” the official added.LEDs are currently the most energy efficient source of electric light, in comparison to incandescent, fluorescent, meta-halide or mercury lamps, within the luminous efficiency of 80-90 percent for traditional lighting. This means that 80 percent of the energy supplied to the device is converted to light, while 20 percent is lost and converted into heat.It may be mentioned that SER has already started using LED lights in some passenger coaches and aims to provide such energy efficient lighting in all railway coaches/EMU trains, as well as residential quarters and offices.
In her recent performance at Andhra Bhawan on February 23, Sharanya Chandran, brought together her life’s enriched learnings and experiences on to the stage. It brought together her instruction under none other than her distinguished mother Padmashri Geeta Chandran, but also her prestigious role of ‘Global Shaper’, an initiative of the World Economic Forum. The performance showcases the strength, vigour and grace of the Thanvjavoor style that she learnt from her Guru and Mother (Padmashri) Geeta Chandran. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Sharanya has been learning Bharatanatyam since age four. She presented her formal solo debut performance, the Arangetram at the age of 13. Sharanya is the Vice President and a senior dancer and choreographer of the Natya Vriksha.She is empanelled with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) as a solo artiste and is nationally graded by Doordarshan, having performed in the presence of diverse audiences in India and overseas on several prestigious festivals and forums – both as a soloist and in group choreographies, as part of the Natya Vriksha Dance Company. Most recently, Sharanya was part of the classical dance presentation hosted by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee at Rashtrapati Bhavan in honour of visiting US President Barrack Obama.Her international performance includes Incredible India @ 60 festival at the Lincoln Centre in New York; the Thai Cultural Festival at the Thai Cultural Centre, Bangkok; to Celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Indian Republic under the auspices of the Indian High Commission at Queen Elizabeth Hall, London; the 8th World Hindi Conference in New York and solo dance recital at the Nehru Centre (London).
Kolkata: CESC has taken elaborate measures to prevent electrical fire incidents in the city. From May 1 to 22 May, a number of electrical fire incidents in different areas were reported. CESC engineers had addressed these emergencies at the shortest possible time and disconnected the supply wherever necessary as a measure of safety and restored power connection at the first possible opportunity.Avijit Ghosh, vice-president – CESC Distribution Services said: “We do feel that prompt response from CESC serving 3.2 million consumers across 567 sqkm licensed area makes our city a safer place, if all safety rules are observed strictly. CESC has recently begun a series of safety meetings in different areas and are explaining to citizens that just by following some elementary rules, Kolkata can indeed become a safer place from the point of view of electricity hazards. A safety handbook has been compiled for users and is available in all CESC regional offices. It may be mentioned that an electrical fire had taken place on ISI campus sometime ago. However, it was brought under control due to timely intervention of CESC engineers.
Inspired by internationally-known Kashmiri artist Masood Hussain, a group of students are painting murals on the walls of Srinagar to bring alive the region’s culture and splash colours on the local environment.“Hussain is our friend, philosopher and guide in this small effort,” said Sofi Suhail, who is part of the spreading cheer on the International Airport Road.For the first time in Kashmir, the otherwise shabby-looking walls are attracting onlookers because of these murals – and reviving the Valley’s rich culture and traditions that are fast fading amid the glitz of modern-day lifestyle. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’To begin with, the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC) has started a pilot mural painting project in uptown Srinagar.“We want youth to know about their history, culture and past traditions through this public art. We got in touch with some well-known artists and started the work,” told SMC Commissioner Tufail Matoo.This brought Masood Hussain into the project as its superviser.“What inspired me to accept this was a desire to create some space for creative work here. These murals are a small step in beautifying and making Kashmir presentable,” said Hussain. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHussain roped in a group of six fine arts students from Kashmir University and they have so far, in 15 days, completed three murals at uptown Srinagar’s busy Hyderpora flyover square. Work on the fourth is now under way.“We are very excited about this as it is the first time such an activity is happening here. Not only are we enjoying this work but in the process, we are also learning about our culture and past traditions,” Suhail noted.“We had to start somewhere, but after discussing it in detail, we chose this place as the road from Srinagar airport leads to this square. It is a relatively better place with good roads so it will surely please tourists and locals alike,” Hussain said. The students say the public’s response has been positive.“We work here from morning till evening and nearly 400-500 people stop here every day to see these murals. They ask us about them and appreciate our work. It feels good and has encouraged us,” another art student, Bushra Mir, said.Apart from displaying Kashmir’s rural life and age-old traditions, the murals, students say, aim to attract talent in Kashmir.“Through these murals we also want other students to get inspired to opt for fine arts as a career so that this genre is taken forward by people who are passionate about it,” Saqib Bhat, who is part of the group, noted.The group has also identified some other spots along the airport road where it intends to paint more murals in the future.“We want to create a sample which can be replicated or done better at other places. But apart from such paintings, the authorities also need to focus on environmental designs. Painting a wall is okay, but what about its surroundings? We need to creatively facelift the surroundings,” Hussain said.“We need to educate ourselves as a society about our past and do things which create an interest among the people,” he added.About reports that the murals are intended to erase the separatists’ graffiti that exists on Srinagar’s walls, the students say their work is ‘purely non-political’.“We don’t want to be in any controversy. We are students and our work has nothing to do with any kind of politics,” Bushra Mir, another member of the group, commented.“We are very choosy about selecting a spot to paint murals. It is a mutual decision of SMC, Masood Hussain sahib, and ours,” said Saqib.The public support to such a pioneering effort in Kashmir has encouraged the group.They now look forward to painting the entire city with tradition and culture – and the good news is that there are takers for this artistic effort.“For a while, one feels as if it is not the same city where shabby walls offended passers-by. Let the march of murals continue,” noted Nazir Ahmad, 47, who has a shop in the Hyderpora area and also lives there.
Kolkata: The state Finance department has directed a number of state departments to seek its prior approval when it comes to spending over Rs 10 lakh on construction of office buildings and redesigning the interiors. The move is a part of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s call for austerity drive in administrative affairs.”We have found out that in a number of cases, departments spend huge amounts on decorating the chambers of ministers and departmental heads. At times, when a minister is replaced by another minister who takes charge of the department, the latter asks for a complete renovation of the interiors. This turns out to be a costly affair for the concerned department. The Finance department wants to put a leash on this expenditure,” a senior official of the state secretariat Nabanna said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThere has also been instances when departments have spent exorbitantly while constructing guest houses, new office buildings etc. According to a senior official in the state Finance department, the state government is in favour of undertaking such expenditures within Rs 10 lakh. It has asked departments to seek permission from the Finance department before spending more than the stipulated amount.In a notification issued by the state finance department, it has stated: “For incurring such expenditure, prior approval of the Finance department should be obtained. Administrative departments shall also send the proposals to the finance department for approval of projects as stated above, for which the tender has already been floated or work order has been issued after April 1, 2017; but work is in progress till date”. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedPresently, the heads of some departments, namely the Public Works Department, Urban Development & Municipal Affairs, Panchayats & Rural Development, Health & Family Welfare, Irrigation & Waterways, Water Resources Investigation & Development and Public Health Engineering & housing approve projects amounting upto Rs 20 crore.The rest of the departments can approve projects worth upto Rs 10 crore within the budgetary allocation with concurrence of financial advisers.
Kolkata: The Election Commission of India (ECI) has introduced a number of mobile applications for conducting the forthcoming Lok Sabha elections in a better way and also to provide the voters with a digitised platform to register any violation related to the Model Code of Conduct (MCC) or any incident of intimidation or inducement.For the first time, the ECI is going to use ‘C-Vigil’ — an Android-based mobile application where the voters or citizens can directly bring to the notice of the election officials incidents of MCC violation, expenditure violation. People no longer need to go to the offices of the Returning Officers if they witness any immoral activities involving the candidates or any other political leaders. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseSanjay Basu, additional CEO, said that ‘C-Vigil’ app will soon be made operational where various sorts of election-related malpractices can be uploaded by the voters. If an ordinary citizen from any part of the state witnesses an incident of intimidation or inducement, he/she can upload photos or videos on his mobile application from the spot without any delay. If the complainant desires to remain anonymous, he/she will have an option to do so. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata’C-Vigil’ is a simple and user-friendly mobile app which will provide time-stamped evidentiary proof of MCC or expenditure violation. The auto-location system that is already installed on the mobile app will help the election officials to mobilise flying squads to the spot. The district control rooms will allocate the app-based related cases to the flying squads through GIS-based platform. For voters having issues in checking their names in the electoral roll, online forms need to be submitted. They can even check the status of their application and can take help from ‘Voter Helpline’ mobile app. If anyone files a complaint, he/she will automatically receive a reply on the mobile app. This application will contain important instructions related to the elections and a voter awareness module. The voters can even download the application from Google Play Store. Another mobile application called ‘PwD App’ (Persons with Disabilities) will be of immense help for the disabled who can request for new registration, change in address, change in particulars and mark themselves as persons with disabilities through the use of the mobile application. The disabled candidates need to enter their contact details and the booth-level officers will be assigned to provide doorstep facility. Such voters can also make a request for a wheelchair during the polling process by using this mobile app. The application is already available with Google Play store. Contesting candidates can track the status of their nominations, status of their permission requests by using ‘Suvidha Candidate App’. The candidates can register with the app by using their mobile phone numbers and will be able to keep track of their applications.